The oldest core of the city dates back to the Longobard era, and was located on the highest hill. Later on it was to become part of the huge castle which was built in the late Middle Age. The hill dominated the whole Calore valley, and had hosted even other peoples, according to several important finds. In Tempa San Giovanni, on the southern part of the region, you do find the most important traces of the very first dwellers of the place, dating back to the bronze age (15th and 16th centuries B.C.). The city was surrounded by high walls, enclosing huts scattered across the valley. There are finds even of iron tools and weapons from that very age. Not too far away is Fraulusi cave, an interesting shelter, some 70 mt long, which was basically used as a graveyard. The cave was very well known to illegal diggers, and as a consequence underwent many pillages and damages. Unfortunately, only a small part has kept its ancient ruins and items.